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REPORT ON WORLD CALENDAR EXHIBITION 2019

                           JAPANESE

REPORT ON WORLD CALENDAR EXHIBITION 2019

    Meeting Different Cultures
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Calendar of Thailand
 

Theevent was held from Friday 1 March- Friday 31 May 2019

At:Gekko (moonlight) Astronomical Observatory, Shizuoka, Japan

Organizedby: Gekko Astronomical Observatory and International Foundation for CulturalHarmony

 

Summary

Withthe cooperation of embassies, supporters, friends and agencies, we were able toget more than 100 calendars from 35 countries and 2 international agencies. GekkoAstronomical Observatory exhibited about 80 calendars out of the 100 collected,in the hall, i.e. the Cosmo World. The Exhibition was conducted with the theme,Meeting Different Cultures. We would like to introducesome typical calendars in the following.

 


Calendars from African countries ★6 (Eritrea, Ghana,Kenya, Djibouti, Sudan, and Malawi)

1 A calendar of Sudan

The picture shown on apage of the calendar is renovation or construction of a road. The calendar wasprobably made by the company that undertakes the public work. Presumably theyneed to work hard under scorching sunshine. Days of the week, and months arewritten in Arabic, which is to read from right to left. Their days are arrangedfrom right to left on the calendar. The numerals are written from left toright, however. Their weekend is Friday, which is the day for worship. Dates inArabic are also written underneath the dates in ordinary Arabic numbers.

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Quiz 1

  Thereis another calendar that has their dates put from right to left. Which one isit?

2〕Adesktop calendar made by the Djibouti Central Bank

Daysof the week and months are written in French and English. They have two weeklydays off ? Friday and Saturday.

 

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Calendarsfrom Europe 8 (Italia, Ukraine, Switzerland, theCzech Republic, Norway, Poland, Latvia, and Romania)

 

 

3〕Acalendar of the Czech Republic

Thiscalendar is from Litomysl, a city known as gTownscape with the HarmoniousCoexistence of Traditions and the Modernity.h The upper half has a picture thatdepicts a traditional scene of the town. On the calendar, a month is written inEnglish and Czech with no days of the week, and a big blank space. Weekends areSundays as generally adopted in European countries.

 

 

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4〕 TheSeptember page of a calendar from Ukraine

Thepicture may have been drawn imitating a famous painting by Leonard da Vinci,the Mona Lisa. But this is an optical illusion with a bird on her hand, leavesof grasses on her robe, etc. Days of the week are written in Russian andEnglish. The weekend is Sunday. Russia and its vicinities must have hadinfluences from European cultures.

 

 

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TheNear and Middle East 2 (Israel andJordan)

Asia ★14(India, Uzbekistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Bangladesh, Philippines, Myanmar,Maldives, Laos, Vietnam, Korea, China, and Japan)

 

5India:  Children’s Forest Program Calendar by OISCASouth India

Thiscalendar has four different calendars ? the Gregorian calendar, the Solarcalendar of India, the Islamic calendar and the calendar of South India, i.e.Malayalam calendar. There used to be different and unique calendars in eachState with their respective languages and characters.

 

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6〕Laos:A calendar of Laos (the page for January, February, and March). It looks likehaving been published by an Electric Company. The girl on the page holds asmartphone in her hand. They use abridged Lao and English to describe monthsand days of the week. They might have put 0 to months, perhaps reflecting thefashion in the digital age.

 

 

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7〕SriLanka: A calendar of an insurance company is shown.  Do they fly kites in the new year likeJapan?  Unusual in Asia, the weekend isSunday.  Concerns of insurance businessindicate that the country has developed to some extent.  The name of month and date are printed inEnglish and un-legible languages, supposedly Sri Lanka and Tamil languages?

January calendar: Thereare Public Holidays, Bank Holidays, Poyade Holidays, and Holidays forMerchants.  The Poyade, encircled withyellow color, is the full moon day which is the Buddhism Holiday.  The Bank Holidays may be influenced by WestEuropean culture.

 

 

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8〕 Myanmar:A university calendar (April to June, Left) is shown.  The slogan reads gUniversity for the development of thenational races of the unionh. The cover photo is the lineup of female students with localcostumes.  Myanmar is the Buddhismcountry famous with Pagodas.

 

 

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Acalendar of Myanmar (April): A vertical layout is sometimes used in foreigncalendars.  The name of month and day ofthe week are printed in Burmese and English languages.  The abbreviation for Thursday only is in fourcharacters that looks somewhat strange. Around 14 April, there is a traditional New Year with five successiveholidays.  The local lunar calendar isco-described until 14 or 15 April.

 

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9〕 Thailand: A calendar (September and July)is shown.

TheWestern year 2019 is the year 2562 in Thailand. That is the year counted from the death of Buddha.  The name of month and name of the week aredescribed both in Thai and English languages. Four lunar phases (New, Waning, Full, and Waxing) are also shown.

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10〕 China: A calendar from Hong Kong isshown.

In this agriculturalcalendar, from the year of dog to the year of boar, the change seems to occurat the traditional New Year.  Instead ofthe boar, the pig is used.  The luckycolor of red is used in the calendar. The New Year holiday in the contemporary calendar is for one day, whileduring the traditional New Year in February, there are three successiveholidays.

 

Inaddition to the Chinese holidays, the US, Canadian, Australian, and UK holidaysare also printed.  The name of month isin English and number, and name of the week is in English and number fromMondays in Chinese characters.

 

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11Bangladesh: A desktop calendar of theMinistry of Foreign Affairs is shown.  Asan Islamic country, the weekend holidays are Fridays and Saturdays.

 

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[North and South America] 4 (USA, Chile, Venezuela, andDominica)

12USA: A monthly calendar of NASA isshown.  In September, the image of theISS (International Space Station) Japan module “Kibo (Hope)” is employed.  The week starts from Sunday, and four moonphases are printed.  Since the USA keepssome cultural distances from the traditional Europe, the holidays relevant tothe Christianism is Christmas only.

 

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13Chile: A calendar of ESO (EuropeanSouthern Observatory) is shown.

InOctober (left), a VLT (very large telescope) consisted of four 8 metertelescopes is depicted.  The laser beamfrom a dome is for optical compensation of the atmospheric fluctuation.  A group of radio telescopes at ALMAinternational collaborative project (June, right).  English language is used with no holidayhighlighting.

 

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In April, for thefirst time in history, an image of a black hole in M87 galaxy was released as aresult of worldwide collaboration of radio telescopes including ALMA.

[Oceania](Fiji)

International Orgaization〕 ★2United NationWorld Bank

[Japan](Approximately 50 items)

  

14Japan: Press release of the name of thenew era “Rei-wa” (Evening issue of Shizuoka Newspaper) is shown.

Asof 1 April, the new era name was disclosed. That is the 248th era name.

The new era name is“Rei-wa”, cited from the Japanese “Man-yo-shu”, the oldest collection of shortpoems.  Since the new era name has alwaysbeen chosen from Chinese classic literature, this is the first time that thenew era name was selected from the Japanese classic literature.

Also,this is the first time that a Chinese character “Rei” was used, while “Wa” hasbeen picked up for twenty times.  “Rei”means “elegant”.

Thenew era name will be effective from 1 May when the new Emperor is enthroned.

 

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Thechange in the name of era occurred while our special exhibition of the WorldCalendar 2019 was held.Whereas the origin of era name was China, at present,only Japan uses the era name.

In Japan, the first name ofera “Taika” was used in 645 AD.  Hence,although interrupted for a while, the era name has been continued since 701 AD(Taiho).  On this Globe, there has beenfew countries that has been using the era name for over 1,300 years, and somehistorians say that “the era name system is of a National treasure class”.  This may well be a typical Japanese culture.

 

〔15TraditionalJapanese calendars

InJapan, every shrine issues a calendar.

Itmay be said that it is a sign of Japanese culture that places Gods and Buddhain its center.

 

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16A modern “Mishima” calendar (April) isshown.

Up until April, bothChristian era and Japanese era are printed.

Forthis year, it is unusual that the Japanese era “Heisei” is described for eachmonth.  Most of all of the Japaneseshrine calendars list the Japanese era on the cover page while it is omitted oneach month page.

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[Answer to Quiz 1]: Since the booklet-type authentic Japanesecalendars are written vertically, the date is printed from the right to theleft.

 

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Modern“Mishima” calendar (May).

Whenthe time stage of editing the new year calendar, the new Japanese era name hasyet to be decided, therefore, the calendar editors managed to invent newideas.  For example, some of them madethe columns for the Japanese era in May and thereafter vacant.

Accordingto the TV news report in April, it seems that the “New Era Calendar”, that haslisted the new era name for May and thereafter, has been issued.

Sincethe announcement of the new era name occurs unexpectedly and abruptly,historically, there has been no calendar reflecting the new era year existing.


 
 

Acknowledgments:For the special exhibition of “World Calendar 2019”, many foreign embassies inJapan, OISCA Foundation, Japan Society of Calendar Studies, Association ofMishima calendar, Todan Inc., etc. helped us. Thank you very much.

 

 

[Venue]Gekko (Moonlight) Astronomical Observatory (GAO), a historic observatory opento the public.  On 22 July 2017, a brandnew building was opened.

[Externalview of GAO]

 

 

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      Gekko Astronomical Observatory


 

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