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Year 2019 viewed from the calendar



                                               Year 2019 viewed fromthe calendar
 
 ★ ISS “Kibo” (Hope) module construction completed.  19 July 2009 (10 years ago).
  Japanese experimentmodule “Kibo” was constructed at the International Space Station (ISS) by threeastronauts, Takao Doi, Akihiko Hoshide, and Koichi Wakata.  The operation plan for ISS after 2025 has yetto be fixed.
 ★Age of “Heisei” started. 8 January 1989 (30 years ago).
  The day after thepass away of Emperor Hirohito, Emperor Akihito took over and the age of Heiseistarted.  As of 30 April 2019, theEmperor Akihito will retire.
 ★Man landed the Moon by Apollo spaceship.  20 July 1969 (50 years ago).
  NASA’s spaceship“Apollo 11” dispatched a moon landing machine “Eagle”, and Captain Armstrongand Aviator Collins arrived at the Moon for the first time as humanbeings.  It was only 12 years after thefirst launch of man-made satellite. Captain Neale Armstrong who landed on the moon (Sea of serenity) wasbroadcast worldwide via satellite, and his words “This is one small step for man, but one giant leap for mankind."   In the same year, Apollo 12's moon landing machine "Intrepid" landed on the "Ocenan of Storm".
Capten Peter Conrad said "This is a small steo for Neale, but is a great step for me." (Peter was shorter than Neale)  as a joke.
 ★Photo of the reverse side of the moon taken by a surveyorLuna 3.  7 October 1959 (60 years ago).
   The moon, the nearestheavenly body from the Earth, is pausing the rotation towards the Earth, hencethe moon that is rotating around the earth always shows only the one same side,and we cannot see the other side (further hemisphere).  On this date, USSR’s lunar spaceship “Luna 3”succeeded in taking photographs of the reverse side of the moon (about 70% area).  To our surprise, on the reverse side of themoon, the Sea (dark area) was extremely small. The reason why the Sea is extremely small remains unknown.  The small Sea on the top left was named asthe “Sea of Moscow”.  On the cover of2019 calendar that we published, the moon and the earth together were taken bythe US deep universe surveyor “Discover”. The unusual moon in there is the reverse surface that cannot been seenfrom the earth.  Since the moon resides closerthan the earth, its diameter seems about one third of the earth (actual size isabout one fourth of the earth.)
 ★Dr. Hideki Yukawa won a Nobel prize for the first time asJapanese.  3 November 1949 (70 years ago).
 

 Dr. Yukawa proposedthe meson theory in April 1933, and won a Nobel Prize. The paper was published16 years ago, when Dr. Yukawa was 27 years old. Meson was a hypothetical elementary particle introduced to explain as afactor that binds protons and neutrons in atomic nucleus.                Itsweight was thought to be between the electron and the proton, hence it wascalled as meson.  In 1936, Anderson ofUSA discovered a new particle in the cosmic ray, and was thought to be mesonthat Yukawa had predicted, however, it was revealed as mu-particlemuon,a kind of electron.  But it enhanced theinterest in Yukawa particle.  In 1947,Pawell of UK discovered a new particle from the cosmic ray, that was meson asYukawa had predicted.  Two years later,Yukawa won a Nobel prize for physics.  Currently,the particle is called as pion.

*The weight of protonis about 2,000 times that of electron, and pion’s weight is about 200 timesthat of electron.

 ★The law of Hubble announced: expansion of the Universediscovered.  1929 (90 years ago).
  Edwin Hubble, a USastronomer, announced, on the basis of quite a few number of observations ofgalaxies with the 100 inch (2.5 m) diameter telescope (the largest at thattime), that the further galaxies are moving away faster.  It meant that the Universe is expanding.  In 1916. Einstein announced the generaltheory of relativity .  When this theory isapplied to the Universe, it will either 1) shrink, 2) maintain Equilibrium, or3)expand.  While Einstein added a “Cosmologicalconstant to 2) to realize the static universe, Hubble independently discoveredby observation that the Universe is expanding.
 ★General theory of relativitybecame popular.  29 May 1919 (100 yearsago).
  The UK astronomerArthur Eddington observed the solar eclipse on Principe island in Saint tomeCountry on the west coast of Africa, in order to examine the general theory of relativityproposed by Einstein (the light is bent by the gravity).  The confirmative results were reported by newspapersworldwide. Therefore, by this observation, the general theory of relativity becamewidely known by public.  Thereafter, a presspersonasked Eddington “Those who understand the general theory of relativity are onlythree persons in the world, aren’t they?”, and he replied “Who else is thethird person (besides Einstein and Eddington)?” as a joke.
 ★IAU (InternationalAstronomical Union) founded.  28 July1919 (100 years ago).
   On this date, IAU wasfounded in Paris. On 11 November in the previous year, the World War II endedafter four years of battles.  IAU is an internationalorganization with 10,000 member astronomers and 64 national members.  Once every three years, the generalconference is held.  Each nation in turnholds chairpersonship.  Under IAU, thereare the asteroid center, etc., and it is also involved with issuance ofastronomical telegraph.  Also, oneworking group deals with the naming right of fixed stars, planets, asteroids,and other heavenly bodies.  From ourGekko Astronomical Observatory, naming of a total of 14 asteroids were officiallyaccepted.
 ★Mendeleev discoveredthe periodic table of elements.  6 March1869 (150 years ago).
   On this day, aRussian scientist Dormitory Mendeleev announced the periodic table.  He tabulated the approximately 60 elementsknown at that time in accordance with its atomic weight.  In the table, he left the unknown elementsvacant.   Thereafter, all of newlydiscovered elements fell exactly into the vacant places.  Thus, the periodic table became a good toolto discover new elements.
 ★Publication ofNature.  4 November 1869 (150 years ago).
   In this year, a UKastronomer Lockyer first published a scientific weekly journal “Nature”.
 ★Darwin published“Origin of Species”.  24 November 1859(160 years ago).
   On this date, a UKscientist Charles Darwin published “Origin of Species.”  In the book, he argued that all livingorganisms are under pressure of survival, and only the organism that fits thenew environment will survive that was called the “natural selectiontheory”.  Since this book was written inplain English, it gathered widespread interest, and evoked variousdebates.  Nowadays, the natural selectiontheory is scientifically acknowledged as a driving factor for the adaptiveevolution.
 ★Daguerre inventedsilver plate photo (Daguerreotype).  19August 1839 (180 years ago).
   A French photographer,Daguerre, in collaboration with Niépce, used a silver-plated copper plate as alight-sensitive material, although photo-reprints cannot be made by this system.  On 19 August1839, the French governmentbought the invention and announced worldwide (World Photograph Day).  Since then, many people joined to improve,and, in 1841, a UK scientist Talbot invented the negative-positive processmethod.  Soon after that, the photographywas applied to astronomical observation, and the technology contributedsignificantly to the progress in science.
 ★Kepler’s law of planets’movement discovered.  1619 (400 yearsago).
  

The first law:Planets move along with an elliptical orbit one of whose focal point is the Sun. 

The second law: Theline between the Sun and a planet makes the same area within a certain timeperiod.

The third law: Thesquare of the revolution period of a planet is proportional to the cubic of thesemi-major axis.

Kepler extensively examinedthe Chico Brahe’s observational data, and discovered These laws.  The reason why these laws are true was elucidatedby Newton’s Law of Gravity.  The Law ofGravity became the fundamental basis for modern science.

 

 

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      Gekko Astronomical Observatory


 

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